Science Behind AGEs
Advanced Glycation End Products: Sparking the Development of Diabetic Vascular Injury
Advanced glycation end products (A.G.E.s) are proteins or lipids that become glycated after exposure to sugars. A.G.E.s are prevalent in the diabetic vasculature and contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The presence and accumulation of A.G.E.s in many different cell types affect extracellular and intracellular structure and function.
Diabetologia (Springer-Verlag 2001): Advanced Glycation End-Products: A Review
Advanced glycation end-products are a complex and heterogeneous group of compounds that have been implicated in diabetes related complications. We discuss the chemistry of advanced glycated end-product formation and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to the diabetic microvascular complications of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy as well as their role in the accelerated vasculopathy observed in diabetes.
Enhanced Cellular Oxidant Stress by the Interaction of A.G.E. Products with Their Receptors/Binding Proteins
Attack by reactive oxygen intermediates, common to many kinds of cell/tissue injury, has been implicated in the development of diabetic and other vascular diseases. Such oxygen-free radicals can be generated by advanced glycation end products (A.G.E.s), which are nonenzymatically glycated and oxidized proteins.
Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to Amyloidosis in Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by deposits of an aggregated 42-amino-acid beta-amyloid peptide (beta AP) in the brain and cerebrovasculature. After a concentration-dependent lag period during in vitro incubations, soluble preparations of synthetic beta AP slowly form fibrillar aggregates that resemble natural amyloid and are measurable by sedimentation and thioflavin T-based fluorescence. Aggregation of soluble beta AP in these in vitro assays is enhanced by addition of small amounts of pre-aggregated beta-amyloid “seed” material. We also have prepared these seeds by using a naturally occurring reaction between glucose and protein amino groups resulting in the formation of advanced “glycosylation” end products (A.G.E.s) which chemically crosslink proteins.
Survey of the Distribution of a Newly Characterized Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Tissues
Advanced glycation end products (A.G.E.s), the final products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, are found in the plasma and accumulate in the tissues during aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes.
Skin Autofluorescence, a Measure of Cumulative Metabolic Stress and Advanced Glycation End Products, Predicts Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients
Tissue advanced glycation end products (A.G.E.) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. A.G.E. are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD.